Wednesday, July 3, 2013
English Public Pleasure Gardens - Vauxhall Chronology 1700s
Vauxhall Gardens in the 1700s
1702 16 April: Birth of Jonathan Tyers
1710 Z. C. von Uffenbach visit—'avenues and covered walks . . . and green huts'
1712 20 May: Spectator article
1717 Date on leadwork of the proprietor's house, with initials PHH for Philemon and Hannah Hill.
1722 Jonathan Tyers marries Elizabeth Fermor
1729 Jonathan Tyers the elder becomes Proprietor of Vauxhall Gardens
1729 17 March: Date on Jonathan Tyers's lease from Elizabeth Masters, widow, at £250 p.a. for 30 years. Tyers was already in occupation of the Old Spring Garden
1729 Gardens described by Pierre Jacques Fougeroux
1730 Date on Hogarth's supper-box painting Night
1731/2 12 March: Tyers's first known advertisement for brewers etc.
1732 Wednesday 7 June: The re-launch with a Ridotto al' Fresco
1734 Mr. & Mrs. Tyers buy the Denbies estate, with 80 acres of land, also lease 250 acres nearby
1735 3 June: Orchestra building unveiled
1736 Season runs from Wednesday 19 May to Saturday 21 August
Ordinary tickets withdrawn, but one shilling entrance charge instituted (until 1792)
1737 Monday 2 May: Season opens Organ Building installed behind orchestra
First recorded issue of season tickets at 1 guinea
1738 Season runs from Monday 1 May until Saturday 19 August
26 April: Roubiliac's statue of Handel 'carried over the water, to be put up in Vaux-Hall Gardens'
1739 1 May: Season opens Supper-box paintings mostly complete Carillon added to organ
1740 Hayman group portrait of Tyers family Season tickets cost £1. 5s.
1741/2 Turkish Tent built
1742 5 April: Ranelagh Gardens opens
1743 Engravings after supper-box paintings published
1745 Hayman's Shakespearean scenes Dr. Arne appointed director of music Vocal music introduced as a regular part of the evening's program
1746 Prosperous season at Vauxhall following the defeat of the Jacobites at Culloden (16 April)
1748 Season open on (or by) 18 May Season Tickets cost 2 guineas Rotunda building completed
1749 21 April: Rehearsal of Handel's Fireworks Music
1750 Pillared Saloon
1751 Monday 20 May: Season opens
1752 Jonathan Tyers purchases half of the estate of Vauxhall Gardens from George Dodington for £3,800 The original Cascade is installed
The Provisions of 25 Geo II, c.36 come into force, requiring the licensing of all places of public entertainment within 20 miles of the City and Westminster, in effect leaving Vauxhall, Ranelagh and Marylebone Gardens with a virtual monopoly
1753 8 May: Season opens
1754 "Mr. Tyers has had the ruins of Palmyra painted in the manner of the scenes so as to deceive the eye and appear buildings"
1758 The new Gothic orchestra unveiled Robert Adam commissioned to build a Temple of Venus at a cost of £5,000 Tyers completes the purchase of the estate from Mr. Atkins and Mrs. Jennings
1761 First of Hayman's paintings for the Pillared Saloon.
1762 Anon, A Description of Vaux-Hall Gardens, published by S. Hooper
Ostenaco, a Cherokee chief, and a group of Indians, visit Vauxhall with Henry Timberlake
1763 Thursday 19 May: Season opens
1764 Completion of Hayman's four paintings for the Pillared Saloon
Tyers fences the dark walks; following destruction of the fences (and other extensive vandalism), he introduces lighting instead
1765 Thursday 29 August: Season concludes with a masquerade, attended by up to 5,000 guests
1766 Season of bad weather opens by 19 May. Tyers makes a £3,000 loss over the year
1767 26 June: Death of Jonathan Tyers at Vauxhall After death of Jonathan Tyers the elder, the ownership of Vauxhall Gardens passes to Elizabeth, his widow and management is passed to a family partnership with Jonathan Tyers the younger in charge
1768 13 May: Season opens 17 August: King of Denmark visits Vauxhall
Vauxhall Gardens on the market at £60,000
1769 Grand refurbishment of the gardens, at a cost of £5,000, including a canopy over the Grand walk (completed the year before)
1771 Death of Elizabeth Tyers, leaving the gardens to her four children, Thomas, Elizabeth,Margaret and Jonathan the younger. Management stays with Jonathan the younger.
1771 17 May: Season opens
1772 James Hook appointed principal keyboard player and composer
1773 20 May: Season opens 23 July: The 'Vauxhall Affray'
1777 A wet summer in London
1779 17 May: Season opens Monday
1781 Season Thursday 17 May–24 August 25 June: Sailing match for the Duke of Cumberland's Cup. Duke and Duchess dine afterwards at the gardens, attracting 11,000 visitors
1783 13 May: Season opens In an attempt to avoid the usual Last Night riots and damage, the proprietors close without notice in mid-August
1784 Rowlandson's watercolour of Vauxhall exhibited at the Royal Academy
1785 Thomas Tyers, Margaret Rogers and Bryant Barrett cede partnerhip to Jonathan Tyers the younger, Bryant Barrett (his son -in-law) and Elizabeth Wood (Jonathan's sister)
1785 19 May: Season opens At this time, the Tyers/Rogers/Barrett family own over 45 acres in Vauxhall, including the 11 acres of the Gardens themselves, and up to ninety dwelling-houses, pubs and other buildings
1786 Mon 29 May: Vauxhall Jubilee Tues 30 May: First military fete Season opens on 10 June and runs to Tuesday 29 August
1786 Bryant Barrett becomes the sole proprietor and manager of Vauxhall Gardens
1786 First regular advertisements of the music program Construction of a new entrance in Kennington Lane, sometimes called the 'Coach Gate', with waiting rooms, cloakrooms etc. (first mentioned as an entrance in 1762)
1787 1 February: Thomas Tyers dies unmarried 18 May: Season opens with a Subscription Masquerade Operating licence granted on condition that the gardens close at midnight on Saturday Newly-decorated Balloon-rooms opened
1788 Monday 9 June, 5 pm: Sailing cup race, Blackfriars Bridge to Putney and return to Vauxhall Stairs Sailing transparency shown in the new Promenade Room 'The Vauxhall Jubilee, or Harlequin in the Ball Room' performed at Astley's Amphitheatre
1790 Season Tuesday 18 May–Thursday 26 August
1791 Season Tuesday 17 May–Thursday 25 August New Supper Room By 12 August, a new Gothic Temple, decorated with coloured lamps in perpetual motion ('The Moving Temple'), designed by Martinelli
1792 21 March: Death of Jonathan Tyers the younger
1792 Ownership of Vauxhall Gardens passes to Bryant Barrett, manager and proprietor
1792 Season Thursday 31 May–Monday 27 August Prince's Gallery (400 ft. long) and Ante-Room built 4 June: Joseph Haydn visits Vauxhall Admission price raised to two shillings; profit of £5,000 for the season.
1793 Season Thursday 23 May–Thursday 15 August Proprietors pay £1,000 'Admission fine' to the Duchy of Cornwall to continue lease of the gardens
1794 Decorated Vauxhall Barge on the Thames. Flockton's 'Drolleries' exhibited
1795 Monday 6 June: Season opens A Season of bad weather. Tea and coffee discontinued because of high cost
1796 19 May: Gardens opened with a grand Ridotto al Fresco; large temporary saloon for dancing; company in evening dress
1797 Mr. C.H. [Christopher] Simpson Master of Ceremonies (until his death in 1835)
1798 Fireworks first exhibited as a regular feature
For much more, see Vauxhall Gardens, by David E. Coke, Alan Borg, published in 2011 by Yale University Press